# The Olympiad Simulator:natural and exact sciences

More than 1.3 million contestants took part in the invitational stage of the All-Russian Olympiad for Schoolchildren. Try your hand at solving the last year’s extraordinary tasks!

Anyone will be able to participate in the invitational stage in the spring 2024. You can track information on the social networks of the project or on this website.
mathematics
informatics
physics
chemistry
biology
astronomy

# Age levels

• Junior
Participants are supposed to demonstrate their ability to observe, think logically, operate numbers and make the simplest logical conclusions. To solve the tasks, skills of counting to 100, as well as attentiveness and observation are needed.
• Middle
Participants are supposed to have sufficient knowledge of methods of polynomial transformations, to solve linear and quadratic equations, sets of equations and text tasks. General ideas about prime numbers, decomposing numbers by prime factors are also needed. It also necessary to understand what GCD and LCM, their characteristics and search algorithms are. In terms of geometry, doctrines within congruence and similitude of triangles, parallel straight lines properties are used. It is believed that contestants can find the main triangle elements without the use of trigonometry. Non-standard thinking and creative mathematical approach are supposed to be used in each task.
• Senior
Participants are supposed to have sufficient knowledge of methods of polynomial transformations, solving linear and quadratic equations, inequalities and their sets, as well as text tasks. You also should have general ideas of equations of higher degrees. Knowing the concept of function, its domain, range and fundamental properties may be useful, too. General ideas about prime numbers, decomposing numbers by prime factors are also needed. You should understand what GCD and LCM, their characteristics and search algorithms are. Knowledge of divisibility by 2, 3, 5, 8, 9 may be needed. In terms of geometry, doctrines within congruence and similitude of triangles, parallel straight lines properties, as well as properties of triangles, quadrilaterals and polygons, circles, tangents to the circles, their secant lines and inscribed angles are used. It is believed that contestants can find the main triangle elements with the use of trigonometry. Non-standard thinking and creative mathematical approach are supposed to be used in each task.
• Junior
Junior age level includes 5 tasks with entering an answer or fulfilling a table. Special skills in Informatics are not required; all you need is basic mathematical knowledge and creative thinking.
• Middle
In the middle age level, there are 4 tasks with entering an answer (spreadsheets are needed in one of them) and 3 programming tasks. Only 5 tasks out of 7 are evaluated, those for which the best result will be obtained.

To complete programming tasks, it is enough to be able to write and use basic structures: variables and arithmetic operations, conditional statements and loops.

You can use the following programming languages: Python 3, C++, Pascal, C#, Java, Go, Kotlin, PHP, Кумир, Rust.
• Senior
Senior age level includes 5 programming tasks. Participants are supposed to have sufficient knowledge of the basic structures of one of the programming languages, such as variables and arithmetic operations, conditional statements, loops and arrays (or lists). All problems can be solved without the use of special algorithms.

You can use the following programming languages: Python 3, C++, Pascal, C#, Java, Go, Kotlin, PHP, Кумир, Rust.
• Middle
There're 3 tasks with sub-questions in the set, covering the following topics:
1) Volume (V), mass (m), density (ρ)
2) Distance (D), time (t), speed (V)
3) Elastic force, Hooke's law: F = kx, where k is the spring stiffness coefficient
4) Gravity
5) Equilibrium condition for force vectors acting in a straight line
6) Action and reaction (opposite reaction)
7) Working with graphs
• Senior
There're 3 tasks with sub-questions in the set, covering the following topics:
1) The heat balance equation, Ohm's law, Joule-Lenz law (Joule heating)
2) Statics. Moment of a force
3) The kinematics of rotational motion, cylinder volume
• Middle
This set of tasks is suitable for beginners, i.e. those students who have just begun studying fundamentals of chemistry.
The basic concepts mentioned in the tasks are: atom, molecule, atomic and molecular mass, chemical formula.
The students are also assumed to know the properties of the key environmental substances, such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc. and combustion reactions.
• Senior
This set of tasks is designed for advanced-level learners.
The tasks require understanding of structure of inorganic compunds, their physical and chemical properties, as well as nuclear transformations.
An Olympiad participant should be able to solve problems using reaction equations for calculations, determine the formula of an unknown substance using quantitative data, and calculate the concentration of solutions.
• Junior
The set contains tasks of three types, such as choosing single or multiple correct statements from the list and matching objects and their features. Participants are expected to know fundamentals of biological taxonomy, botany, zoology, ecology, human and animal physiology and structure of animal and plant cells.
• Middle
The set contains tasks of three types, such as choosing single or multiple correct statements from the list and matching objects and their features. This level requires a deeper knowledge of structure and vital activity of bacteria, terrestrial plants, fungi, lichens, invertebrates and vertebrates. Basic understanding of human health, general biology and ecology also might be helpful.
• Senior
The set contains tasks of four types, including quantitative and qualitative ones. Participants are expected to show in-depth knowledge of wide range of biologial disciplines, from botany, zoology, anatomy and physiology to more complex fields such as molecular and cell biology, biochemistry and genetics.
• Junior
The set includes 8 tasks on the following topics:
1) Starry sky: objects observed in the daytime and nighttime sky.
2) Constellations and brightest stars.
3) Properties and motion of the Earth. Change of seasons, equinox and solstice.
4) Properties and movement of the Moon, phases of the Moon, solar and lunar eclipses.
5) General ideas about the Solar system.
6) General ideas about the Universe and astronomical objects.
• Middle
The set includes 8 tasks on the following topics:
1) Constellations and their brightest stars,
2) Celestial bodies and phenomena,
3) Features of the planets of the Solar System,
4) The surface of the Moon and its phases,
5) Basic geometric and physical properties of various celestial bodies,
6) The annual motion of the Sun in the sky,
7) The nature of light and its propagation in space.
• Senior
Senior level problem set is designed for participants who are fairly familiar with the basic astronomical concepts and laws.
The set includes 10 tasks on classical astronomy and the basics of astrophysics.
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